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Adhatoda zeylanica

Nomenclature I Family I Habitat I Morphology I Cultivation I Traditional Knowledge
Chemistry I Formulation I Usage I Commercial aspects I Patents I Bibliography


Nomenclature:

Botanical Name: Adhatoda zeylanica Medic                                                    

Common Name : Malabarnut, Vasaka

Adhatoda zeylanica Vernacular names:
Sanskrit:
Shwetavasa, Vasa, Vasaka;
Hindi: Arusa, Bansa;
Beng:
Basak;
Garhwal:
Bangra;
Guj: Aradusi;
Kan: Adusoge;
Kurchigida:
Pavate;
Kashmir: Bahekar, Baikar, Basuth, Bhenkar;
Kumaun: Arus, Basinga;
Mal:
Adalodakam;
Mundari: Aranbida;
Oran: Bakaspati;
Oriya:
Arusa,Basung;
Punjab: Bansa, Basuti, Bhekar, Vasaka;
Tam: Adhatodai, Pavettai;
Tel: Addasaramu.
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Family: Acanthaceae    

Habitat: Distributed throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,300 m.

Morphology
Adhatoda zeylanica

An evergreen, gregarious, stiff, perennial, shrub, 1.2-6.0 m in height. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate or ovate lanceolate, entire, 5-30 cm long, hairy, light green above, dark  below, leathery; flowers large, white with red- or yellow-barred throats, in spikes with large bracts; capsules clavate, longitudinally channelled, 1.9-2.2 cm x 0.8 cm; seeds globular.

Part used as crude drug

The drug comprises fresh or dried leaves, often mixed with stems or other aerial parts.

Morphological characteristics of drug
The powdered drug is greyish brown and tastes bitter, with characteristic odour.  The drug is official in IP.  Foreign organic matter should not be more than two per cent.

Cultivars (including improved Varieties)
A lot of intra-specific variability is seen in this species. However, no improved cultivar / strain has been reported to be developed.

Cultivation
The shrub grows on waste lands and in a variety of habitats and soil.  It is sometimes cultivated as a hedge, but no systematic cultivation has been undertaken.  It can be grown from seeds or by cuttings.
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Collection
The aerial portions with maximum leaves along with tender stem are collected.         

Traditional Knowledge  (Ethnobotanical / Folk-lores / House hold remedies / Self help mode)
The dried leaf is smoked as a cigarette. The leaf-juice is stated to cure diarrhoea, dysentery and glandular tumour, and is given as emmenagogue.  The powder is reported to be used as poultice on rheumatic joints, as counter-irritant on inflammatory swellings, on fresh wounds, urticaria and in neuralgia.

Chemistry
Four new quinazoline alkaloids - vasicoline, adhatodine, vasicolinone and anisotine  from leaves and one each i.e. vasicinone  and vasicol have been isolated from inflorescence and leaves respectively. A new alkaloid - 9-acetamido-3,4-dihydropyrido[3,4-b] indole and a new glucoside - O-ethyl-a -D-galactoside - along with sitosterol-b -D-glucoside, galactose and deoxyvasicinone were isolated from roots. 2’-hydroxy-4-glucosyloxychalcone have been identified in flowers. Another alkaloid vasicinolone, have been  isolated from roots. A new quinazoline alkaloid have been isolated from leaves and characterised as 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro5-methoxypyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-3-ol(I-form).Adhavasinone have been  isolated and characterised . (+)vasicinone have been isolated from leaves. Synthesis of vasicoline and vasicolinone have been attempted.

Vasicinol, vasicinone, deoxyvasicinone, deoxyvasicine (minor alkaloids) and vasicine isolated from leaves showed seasonal variation in the percentage of minor alkaloids and total alkaloids. Leaves collected in Mar.-Apr. showed a higher percentage of minor alkaloids, whereas those collected in June-Sept. had higher content of vasicine.

29-methyltriacontan-1-ol along with b -sitosterol, and two new aliphatic hydroxyketones have been isolated from aerial parts and characterised as 37-hydroxy, hexatetracont-1-en-15-one and 37hydroxy,hentetracontan-19-one.
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Chemical markers
Several alkaloids are present in the drug and the chief principle is a quinazoline alkaloid, vasicine; the yield of the alkaloid from different samples in India ranged from 0.541 to 1.105 per cent on dry basis.  Yield as high as 2.18 per cent on dry basis has been reported from a foreign sample of which more than half was the l -form and the remainder the dl-form of the alkaloid.  Vasicine is accompanied by l- vasicinone.

Molecular Markers (Protein, DNA)
In Adhatoda vasica  (Justicia adhatoda) trnF-trnL intergenic spacer, partial sequence; and  tRNA-Leu (trnL) gene, partial sequence; chloroplast genes for chloroplast products have been reported along with18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 26S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence have also been worked out.

Isozymes
Under Construction

Pharmacology

(a)Bioactivity
The pharmacological activities of vasicine and vasicinone are well known.  The /-forms of vasicine and vasicinone are more active than their racemic forms.  Recent investigations on vasicine showed bronchodilatory activity (comparable to theophylline) both in vitro and in vivo.  Vasicinone showed bronchodilatory activity in vitro but bronchoconstrictory activity in vivo; it is probably biotransformed in vivo, causing bronchoconstriction.  Both the alkaloids in combination (1:1) showed pronounced bronchodilatory activity in vivo and in vitro.  Vasicine also exhibited strong respiratory stimulant activity, moderate hypotensive activity and cardiac-depressant effect; vasicinone was devoid of these activities.  The cardiac-depressant effect was significantly reduced when a mixture of vasicine and vasicinone was used. Vasicinone (dl-form) showed no effect on the isolated heart, but probably the l-form is a weak cardiac stimulant.
Clinical trials of a commercial drug containing vasicinone and vasicinone have not revealed any side effects while treating bronchial asthma. The drug is known to possess abortifacient activity and hence should not be used during pregnancy.

(b)Toxicity
Two generation of teratogenic studies in rat & rabbits did not any toxicity or teratogenic effects.
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Formulation
The drug is employed in different forms, such as fresh juice, decoction, infusion and powder; also given as alcoholic extract and liquid extract or syrup.  It is also given along with other expectorants, and forms a part of several proprietary, compounds.

General usage
The shrub is the source of the drug - vasaka, well known in the indigenous systems of medicine for its beneficial effects, particularly in bronchitis.  The leaves, flowers, fruits and roots are extensively used for treating cold. cough, whooping-cough and chronic bronchitis and asthma as sedative-expectorant, antispasmodic and as anthelmintic.  

Dose
1 -2g of the drug is prescribed as an expectorant either in the form of liquid extract (1-2 ml) or syrup (2-4 ml).
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Commercial aspects

(a) Production
Drug is collected from wild sources only.

(b) Demand
In India the total demand is 500 tons per year

(c) Market Trends (price)
Dry leaves alone as well as dry leaves along with stem portions are two different statuses of the crude drugs available in the market. The current year price have been quoted at Rs.2000/- to Rs.2500/- and Rs.600/- to Rs.800/- per quintal., respectively.

(d) Trade resource
Herbal Drug Dealers at Amritsar and Delhi are the major supply center of vasaca as crude drug.

Major Users
Ayurvedic drug manufacturers and  Pharmaceutical cough syrup manufacturers are the major users of this drug.
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Patents
There are only two Japanese patents on the use of Adhathoda vasica in cosmatics.

1. "Cosmetic " Mikimoto Pharmaceutics. Co. Ltd. JP 7157420 ; 1993
The aim of the patent is to obtain a cosmetic having improved whitening, anti oxidization and hyaluronidase inhibiting activities and improved moisture-holding capacity by cholestieric liquid crystals.

2.  " Cosmatic " Nanba Tsuneo and Mikimoto Pharmaceutics. Co. Ltd. JP 7118135 ; 1993.
The purpose of the patent is to obtain a cosmetic containing solvent extracts of A.vasica used for food for many years being safe to human body. It also helps in whitening action and inhibiting the activity of hyaluronidase.
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Bibliography

Abd, E. M. H. F. and Ahmed, E. S. 1998. Isoquinoline and quinazoline alkaloids of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters. 8(4): 167-69.

Abeywickrama, K. and G. A. Bean 1991. Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins in Sri Lankan medicinal plant material. Mycopathologia 113(3): 187-90.

Ahmad, S. K. and J. S. Prasad 1995.Efficacy of foliar extracts against pre-and post-harvest diseases of sponge-gourd fruits. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 21(6): 373-75.

Ahmed, E. S. S., E. M. H. F. Abd, et al. (1999).Flavonoids and antimicrobial volatiles from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters. 9(2): 52-56.

Amin, A., Z. U. R. Roohi, et al. 1984.Preliminary vegetation and soil investigations of Lohibher Range (Pakistan). Pakistan Journal Of Forestry 34(1): 13-18.

Arambewela, L. S. R., Ratnayake, C. K.  et al. 1988.Vasicine contents and their seasonal variation in Adhatoda vasica. Fitoterapia 59(2): 151-53.

Ayaz, S., F. Hussain, et al. 1989.Allelopathic potential of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Korean Journal Of Botany. 32(2): 109-20.
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Baumert, A., Rosza, Z.  et al. 1987.Biotransformation of a carbon-14 methyl-2 methylaminobenzophenone by plant cell cultures.Planta Medica. 53(1): 90-92.

Bhaduri, N., S. Ram, et al. 1985.Evaluation of some plant extracts as protectants against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) infesting cowpea seed. Journal Of Entomological Research 9(2): 183-87.

Bhargava, M. K., Singh, H.  et al. 1988.Evaluation of Adhatoda vasica as a wound healing agent in buffaloes: Clinical, mechanical and   biochemical studies.Indian Veterinary Journal .65(1): 33-38.

Brantner, A. H. and Chakraborty, A. 1998.In vitro antibacterial activity of alkaloids isolated from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters. 8(3): 137-39.

Chatterjee, S. 1999. Bronchodilatory and anti-allergic effect of PulmoFlex - A proprietary herbal formulation. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.  43(4): 486-90.

Chaudhari, G. S. and Inamdar, J. A. 1984.Nodal and internodal vessels of Acanthaceae. Geophytology 14(1): 33-39.

Chauhan, S. K., G. P. Kimothi, et al. 1999.Development of HPLC method for vasicine and vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica Nees.Indian Journal of Natural Products. 15(1): 21-24.
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Chowdhury, B. K. 1987.Photochemical oxidation of vasicine and related compounds. Indian Journal Of Chemistry. 26 B(7): 688-89.

Chowdhury, B. K. and Bhattacharyya, P. 1985.A further quinazoline alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 24(12): 3080-82.

Claeson, U. P., T. Malmfors, et al. 2000.Adhatoda vasica: A critical review of ethnopharmacological and toxicological data. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 72(1-2): 01-20.

Deka, M. K., K. Singh, et al. 1998.Bioefficacy of aqueous plant extracts on viability of eggs and subsequent development of tea mosquito bug.

Crop Research Hisar. 16(2): 260-64.

Deka, M. K., R. Handique, et al. 1998.Effect of aqueous plant extracts on longevity and fecundity of tea mosquito bug. Crop Research Hisar .16(1): 102-05.

Deshmukh, P. B. and Renapurkar, D. M. 1987.Insect growth regulatory activity of some indigenous plant extracts.Insect Science And Its Application 8(1): 81-84.

Dhembare, A. J., G. M. Pondhe, et al. 1998.Life table studies and control of safflower aphid by plant product.Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 23(1): 01-03.

Dhuley, J. N. 1999.Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals.Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  67(3): 361-65.
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Farooq, S., G. K. Pathak, et al.2000.A comparative study of    Asava/Aarishta and total solvent extract of some medicinal plants. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal. 24(1): 17-20.

Geppe, N. A., A. V. Kaprushkina, et al. 1999.Bronchosan application effectiveness in children with different broncho-pulmonary diseases.Rossiiskii Vestnik Perinatologii i Pediatrii 44(1): 37-40.

Goyal, M., G. L. Sadana, et al. 1984. Studies on the host range of privet mite, Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Indian Journal Of Acarology 9(1-2): 63-68.

Grange, J. M. and Snell, N. J. C. 1996.Activity of bromhexine and ambroxol., semi-synthetic derivatives of vasicine from the India shrub Adhatoda vasica, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50(1): 49-53.

Guleria, J. S. 2000.Adhatoda vasica Nees as an epiphyte on Xylosma longifolium Clos:A new record. Indian Forester.126(3): 311-12.

Gupta, V. N., M. P. Jain, et al. 1985. Preformulation stability studies on vasicine hydrochloride. Indian Drugs 23(1): 32-34.

Hiremath, I. G., Y. J. Ahn, et al. 1997.Insecticidal activity of Indian plant extracts against Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 32(1): 159-66.
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Jacob, S. 1994.Effectiveness of some plant products for the control of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis on stored cowpea. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 22(2): 213-14.

Jain, S. M. and C. K. Atal 1987.Synthesis of vasicine and vasicinone glucosides.Indian Journal Of Chemistry .26B(6): 585-86.

Janardhanan, K. K., K. Abdul, et al. 1994.Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in an alkaline usar land ecosystem.Current Science.  67(6): 465-469.

Jha, K. K. and C. Gupta 1991.Intercropping of medicinal plants with poplar and their phenology. Indian Forester. 117(7): 535-44.

Johri, R. K. and U. Zutshi.2000.Mechanism of action of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12-hexahydro-azepino-(2, 1-b) quinazolin-12-one-(RLX): A novel bronchodilator. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.  44(1): 75-81.

Joshi, B. S., Y. Bai, et al. 1994.1H- and 13C-NMR assignments for some pyrrolo (2,1b)-Quinazoline alkaloids of Adhatoda vasica. Journal of Natural Products. 57(7): 953-62.

Joshi, I. J. 1984.Effects of edaphic conditions and flowering period on the rhizosphere mycoflora of Adhatoda vasica. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae .3(1): 99-110.
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Khan, M. H., Ilahi, I.  et al. 1992. Preliminary report on the subtropical vegetation of Darra Adam khel Hills, Kohat Pass. Sarhad Journal Of Agriculture 8(1): 71-78.

Kumar, S. and K. Gopal 1999.Screening of plant species for inhibition of bacterial population of raw water.Journal of Environmental Science and Health.Part A Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 34(4): 975-87.

Mathew, A. S., K. N. Patel, et al. 1998.Investigation on antifeedant and anthelmintic potential of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Indian Journal of Natural Products. 14(1): 11-16.

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Pradhan, K. C. and S. N. Das 1990.Further observations on nematodes associated with high altitude plants, forest and medicinal plants of Phulbani District (Orissa) (India).Indian Forester. 116(2): 163-67.

Pundarikakshudu, K. and Bhavsar, G. C. 1988. Variations in pharmacognostic characters and alkaloid content in two types of Adhatoda vasica Nees.International Journal Of Crude Drug Research. 26(2): 88-96.

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Saxena, R. M., A. K. Bhatnagar, et al. 1985.Impact of sound pollution on the seed mycoflora of some wild plants.Indian Journal Of Plant Pathology 3(1): 64-68.
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Sharma, A., K. Lal, et al. 1992.Herbal drug standardization: HPLC determination of vasicine in polyherbal formulations. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 30(3): 205-08.

Siddiqui, M. B. and Husain, W.  1994.Medicinal plants of wide use in India with special reference to Sitapur district (Uttar Pradesh). Fitoterapia 65(1): 3-6.

Singh, A., Madan, M.  et al. 1990. Estimation of the aerial biomass of weedy shrubs by regression methods: Studies on Adhatoda vasica. Forest Ecology And Management. 32(2-3): 167-72.

Singh, A., Madan, M. et al. 1987.Increasing biomass yields of hardy weeds through coppicing: Studies on Ipomoea fistulosa and Adhatoda vasica with reference to wasteland utilization.Biological Wastes 19(1): 25-34.

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Zama, M. M. S., H. Singh, et al. 1988.Histomorphological observations on the efficacy of Adhatoda vasica ointment, olive oil and pancreatic tissue extract on wound healing in buffalo.Indian Journal Of Veterinary Surgery. 9(2): 92-95.

Zama, M. M. S., Singh, H. P.  et al. 1991.Comparative studies on Adhatoda vasica and pancreatic tissue extract on wound healing in buffaloes. Indian Veterinary Journal. 68(9): 864-66.
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